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You might find the following excerpts useful.  Links are impeded where possible.

Fight the Bite

The Fight the Bite Story Map uses geography to tell the story of mosquito surveillance in Washington, DC. It looks at the places, events, issues, trends, and patterns in a geographic context, combining authoritative maps with narrative text, images, and multimedia content.

Preventing Andes Mosquito Breeding

The viruses that cause dengue fever and Zika are carried by the Aedes mosquito. As the bite of an infective Aedes mosquito spreads diseases, it is crucial to prevent its breeding. The Aedes mosquito is easily identifiable by the distinctive black and white stripes on its body. It prefers to breed in clean, stagnant water easily found in our homes. You can get rid of the Aedes mosquito by frequently checking and removing stagnant water in your premises.

Dengue outbreak in Singapore 

Singapore has just begun to get its second wave of coronavirus under control. Now, it's on track to face its worst-ever outbreak of another viral infection: dengue. As of 29 June 2020, there have been more than 14,000 reported dengue cases this year. The total number of cases for 2020 is expected to exceed the 22,170 cases reported in 2013, which was the largest dengue outbreak in Singapore’s history

The Zika Virus

The Zika virus is a flavivirus, part of the same family as yellow fever, West Nile, chikungunya, and dengue fever. But unlike some of those viruses, there is no vaccine to prevent Zika or specific medicine to treat the infection. The Aedes aegypti mosquito is an aggressive species, active day and night, and usually bites when it is light out, in the early morning or late afternoon. The virus can be transmitted from a pregnant woman to her fetus, through sexual contact, blood transfusion, or by a needle.  CDC is studying the link between Zika and Guillain-Barré Syndrome, a rare autoimmune disorder that can lead to life-threatening paralysis. It is known to be a side effect associated with other viral illnesses such as influenza.  In February 2016, WHO reported, "Although at least 15 groups are working on Zika vaccines, WHO estimates that it will be at least 18 months before vaccines could be tested in large-scale trials." The FDA approved the first human trial of a Zika vaccine in June 2016. As of 2019, there is still no available vaccine or medication.

West Nile Virus

About 2,300 people have died of West Nile virus in the United States since it was first detected in New York City in 1999.  It is not spread person-to-person through casual contact.  In rare cases, WNV can be spread through blood transfusions, organ transplants, exposure in a lab setting or from mother to infant.  Symptoms of West Nile infection include: fatigue, fever, headache, body aches, rash and swollen lymph nodes.  80% of infected people do not display any symptoms.  According to the CDC, less than 1% of infected people develop a serious neuroinvasive illness, such as encephalitis (inflammation of the brain) or meningitis(inflammation of the protective membranes covering the brain and spinal cord).  There is no vaccine or specific treatment for WNV.  The most effective method of prevention is to avoid mosquito bites, by using insect repellent and by wearing protective clothing when outdoors.

Lyme Disease

When you get bit by a tick, you will typically see a small red bump that may look like a mosquito bite. But three to 30 days later, if a rash shows up and expands from that red area and looks a little like a bull's-eye, that's a sign you may have Lyme disease.  Between 70% and 80% of people with Lyme disease develop this rash, and some patients develop it at more than one location on their bodies.  Left untreated, the infection can spread to the joints, heart and nervous system, according to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. This can lead to joint pain and swelling.  After several weeks to months, patients may also experience swelling of the membranes surrounding the brain, temporary paralysis of one side of the face and "brain fog": forgetfulness or confusion.  Removing a tick within 24 hours cuts your risk of developing Lyme disease because it takes time for the bacteria to move from the tick to the host. The longer the tick is attached to the body, the more likely that person will be infected. Use tweezers to carefully and steadily pull the tick off, grasping near its mouth or neck. Then put antiseptic on the infected area.  If you've been bitten and develop symptoms, call your doctor immediately. Even if your symptoms disappear, you should still see a doctor.


Tick exposure can occur year-round, but ticks are most active during warmer months (April-September). Ticks live in grassy, brushy, or wooded areas, or even on animals.  Conduct a full body check upon return from potentially tick-infested areas, including your own backyard.

Other Websites

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CDC Division of Vector-Borne Infectious Diseases (CDC) - Learn about diseases transmitted by mosquitoes, such as West Nile virus.

DEET External (EXTOXNET (Cornell University) - Extensive toxicity information. Includes bibliography.

Mosquito control and repellants (Environmental Protection Agency)

Mosquito bites: symptoms and causes External (The Mayo Clinic)

Mosquito bites (Medline Plus, U.S. National Library of Medicine)

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